koningin van Frankrijk van 1615 tot 1643. Zij was een dochter van Filips III van Spanje uit het Oostenrijkse Huis. In 1615 huwde zij Lodewijk XIII
. De regering werd gevoerd door Richelieu, tegen wiens anti-Habsburgse politiek zij oppositie voerde. Zij werd ervan beschuldigd tegen hem te intrigeren en heimelijk te corresponderen met haar broer Filips IV, koning van Spanje. Zij schonk in 1638 het leven aan de latere Lodewijk XIV
, voor wie zij van 1643 tot 1651 het regentschap voerde. Hierbij steunde zij volledig op kardinaal Mazarin
, met wie zij, eenzaam en als Spaanse gewantrouwd, in vertrouwelijk contact stond. In 1651 verklaarde zij de 13-jarige Lodewijk meerderjarig, maar nog tot Mazarins dood (1661) behield zij grote invloed; daarna trok zij zich terug in het klooster Val-de-Grâce.
In de roman De drie musketiers van Alexandre Dumas treedt Anna op als een van de hoofdfiguren.
copyright (tekst) - Microsoft Encarta '99
Anne OF AUSTRIA, French ANNE D'AUTRICHE (b. Sept. 22, 1601, Valladolid, Spain--d. Jan. 20, 1666, Paris), queen consort of King Louis XIII of France (reigned 1610-43) and regent during the opening years of the reign of her son King
Louis XIV (from 1643).
The eldest daughter of King Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria, Anne was married to the 14-year-old Louis XIII in November 1615. Throughout his life Louis treated her with a cool reserve. In 1625 the English George Villiers, 1st duke of Buckingham, created a scandal at the French court by revealing his passion for the Queen. Her plight worsened as the powerful
Cardinal de Richelieu, Louis XIII's chief minister from 1624 to 1642, sought to prevent her from exercising any influence over her husband. Anne took as her confidante the scheming Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, duchesse de Chevreuse. Anne and the queen mother, Marie de Médicis, failed in their attempt to persuade Louis to dismiss the Cardinal (the Day of Dupes, 1630).
After Richelieu declared war on Anne's brother, King Philip IV of Spain, in 1635, she remained sympathetic to the Spanish cause. Richelieu's spies kept her under surveillance, and in 1637 the Cardinal humiliated her by proving that she had been visiting the nunnery of Val-de-Grâce in order to conduct treasonable correspondence with Philip. Her status at court was enhanced, however, by the birth of her two sons, the dauphin Louis (the future Louis XIV) in 1638, and Philippe (later duc d'Orléans) in 1640. Through the provisions of his will, Louis XIII attempted to deprive her of her right to be sole regent for Louis XIV. Louis XIII died in May 1643, and shortly thereafter Anne had the will annulled by the Parlement of Paris.
As soon as she was declared sole regent, the leading nobles demanded the restoration of the privileges they had lost under Richelieu. Determined that her son should succeed to the absolute power that Richelieu had won for Louis XIII, she resisted these demands and took as her first minister the Italian-born
Cardinal Jules Mazarin, one of Richelieu's most able associates. Anne and Mazarin were devoted to one another, and some historians have concluded that they were secretly married. Together they faced the series of revolts known as the Fronde (1648-53). The rebels forced Anne to dismiss Mazarin in February 1651, but, by faithfully following the Cardinal's instructions, she was able to divide her enemies. The rebellion virtually collapsed in October 1652, and Mazarin returned to Paris.
Anne's regency officially ended in 1651, when Louis XIV was proclaimed of age to rule. In 1659 France finally made peace with Spain, and the following year Louis XIV was married to Anne's niece, Marie-Thérèse, the daughter of Philip IV.
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